A computer system consists of mainly four basic units; namely input unit, storage unit, central processing unit and output unit. Central Processing unit further includes Arithmetic logic unit and control unit.

Fig. 1.2: Basic computer Organization


A computer performs five major operations or functions irrespective of its size and make.

These are:

  • it accepts data or instructions as input,
  • it stores data and instruction.
  • it processes data as per the instructions,
  • it controls all operations inside a computer, and
  • it gives results in the form of output.
Functional Units:

The functional units of a computer consists of:

  • Input Unit
  • Storage Unit
  • Processing Unit
  • Output Unit

Dotted lines (– – – –) indicate flow of instruction.

solid lines (–––––) indicate flow of data.

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